Pheromone Substances in Humans

Any examination of the impact of pheromone substances on the lives of mammals is logically incomplete without a discussion of the relationship of our own species to our odorous surroundings. The problems already raised of conducting research into one sensory system without eliminating the compensating effects of the others are enormously magnified when one turns to human pheromones. Yet we are animals, we function like animals and a large number of our behavioural traits are derived from those observable today in our anthropoid relatives. It is not to be denied that education, culture and social practices have masked and blurred many of our primaeval responses to environmental cues, but that is not to say such responses no longer exist. Learn more about pheromones:

Pheromones In Humans

Human beings generally agree that, of all the senses, the one they could best afford to lose is that of smell. Most people would say that never again to smell a fragrant flower or freshly cut grass would hardly compare with never again being able to see or to hear. Paradoxically, individuals from civilized, industrialized communities spend much time, effort and money in an attempt to remove naturally produced odours and to spread on perfumes and other odorants that titillate the nasal membranes and these activities are inconsistent with the idea of an obsolete olfactory apparatus. Although we cannot perceive many pheromones at very low concentrations we are capable of discriminating between a huge range of broadly similar substances. Perfumiers can distinguish between astonishingly large numbers of perfumes and most people could train themselves to do likewise. More information is is discussed here:

During the course of evolution our reliance on the olfactory sense and the vomeronasal organ has diminished, at least as far as adults are concerned. It is logical to assume that, since breathing starts immediately after birth, olfactory stimulation also starts at this time. Visual stimulation frequently does not occur until much later. There is evidence that androstenone pheromones in early life plays a vitally important role in moulding our early personalities. Here is some information on the top pheromones:

Variations in human pheromone perception

It has long been known that there are a large number of substances which adult women are better able to perceive than men. These are the musk-like substances, so called because they were first isolated from the preputial glands of the musk deer. 

Sex pheromones are  derived from either steroids, large ring cycloketones or lactones and most bear side chains which are probably involved in specificity of the substance to a particular biological functions. Fig. 7-1 shows the structure of some musky smelling substances and of the male sex hormone testosterone. 

Women are highly sensitive to boar taint substance (produced by the preputial glands of the boar), exaltolide (a synthetic musk) and to civetone (produced by the anal glands of the civet cat.) Le Magnen discovered that 5096-6096 of men could only detect exaltolide at high concentration. The remainder were sensitive to concentrations of the order of 1 part musk to 1 million of solvent. Normal women were sensitive to dilutions in excess of 1 to 1 thousand million per pheromone concentration.